Selasa, 23 Oktober 2007

Sejarah Motor Ducati

Ducati Motor Holding
Ownership(1950 - 1967) Government IRI management years (In 1953 split into Ducati Meccanica, and Ducati Elettronica, now called Ducati Energia SpA)(1967 - 78) Government EFIM management (control over day-to-day factory operations)(1967 - 73) Headed By Montano(1973 - 78) Headed by De Eccher(1978 - 85) Subsidiary of state-subsidized VM Group(1985 - 1996) Cagiva Group ownership(1996 - 2005) Texas-Pacific Group ownership and going publicHeaded by Federico Minoli, 1996-2001 and returning in 2003(2006 - present) Investindustrial: Back in Italian HandsBeginningsIn 1926, three brothers Adriano, Marcello and Bruno Ducati founded Societa Scientifica Radio Brevetti Ducati in Bologna. The company produced tubes, condensers and other radio components. The cornerstone of a new factory in Borgo Panigale was laid in 1935. During the war, the factory was a target for Allied bombing. Although badly hit more than once, production was maintained. About this time Aldo Farinelli began working with the small Turinese firm SIATA (Societa Italiana per Applicazioni Tecniche Auto-Aviatorie) with the idea of developing a small engine that could be mounted on a bicycle. The noise of the engine's short stubby exhaust inspired the name "Cucciolo" (Italian: "little puppy"). Barely one month after the official liberation of Italy, SIATA announced their intention to sell Cucciolo engines to the public; it was the first new automotive design to appear in postwar Europe. The first Cucciolos were available only as a motor to be attached by the owner to a normal bicycle. Some businessmen bought the little engines in quantity, installed them in frames and offered these complete units for sale.By 1950, with 200,000 Cucciolos already sold, Ducati finally offered its own complete motorcycle based on the successful little pushrod engine. The collaboration with SIATA resulted in a well designed little 60 cc bike. This first Ducati motorcycle weighed 98 pounds and had a top speed of 40 mph (64 km/h). Its 15 mm carburetor gave a little under 200 mpg (85 km/L). In the 1950s, Ducati officially dropped the "Cucciolo" name, replacing it with "55M" or "65TL".The market was moving towards bigger motorcycles though, and Ducati's IRI management felt diversification was the only answer. Ducati made an impression at the early 1952 Milan Show, introducing the Ducati 65 TS cycle and the Cruiser, a four-stroke motor scooter. Despite being described as the most interesting new machine at the 1952 show, the Cruiser was not a great success. A couple thousand were made over a two year period before being withdrawn from production.In 1953, management decided to split the operation into two separate entities, Ducati Meccanica SpA, and Ducati Elettronica, under separate management. (Ducati Elettronica became Ducati Energia SpA in the eighties.)Dr. Giuseppe Montano took over as head of Ducati Meccanica SpA and the old Borgo Panigale factory was modernized with government assistance. By 1954, Ducati Meccanica SpA was producing 120 bikes a day, but cheap cars were entering the market, and sales for many motorcycle manufacturers would decline.From the 1960s to the 1990s the Spanish company MotoTrans licensed Ducati engines and produced motorcycles that were recognizably Ducati derived, although incorporating many subtle differences. MotoTrans' most notable machine was the 250 cc 24 Horas (Spanish: 24 hours), a 285 cc version that won the Barcelona twenty-four hour race at the Montjuic circuit for three consecutive years, 1956 to 1958

Sejarah Harley Davidson

Harley-DavidsonHarley-Davidson Motor Company (NYSE: HOG) is an American manufacturer of motorcycles based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States. The company emphasizes heavyweight (over 750 cc) bikes designed for cruising on the highway and known for their distinctive exhaust note.Harley-Davidson motorcycles (popularly known as "Harleys") are distinctive in design and sound, attracting a loyal following (in marketing terms, the owners form a brand community). The Motor Company supplies many American police forces with their motorcycle fleets. Harleys are especially noted for the tradition of heavy customization that gave rise to the chopper-style of motorcycle. It also licenses its logo, which is a profitable side business ($ 41 million of revenue in 2004, or almost 5 % of net income).Since 1998 the Buell Motorcycle Company is a 98 % subsidiary of Harley-Davidson.

The Harley-Davidson engines
The classic Harley-Davidson engines are two-cylinder, V-twin engines with the pistons mounted in a 45° "V". The crankshaft has a single pin, and both pistons are connected to this pin through their connecting rods.This design causes the pistons to fire at uneven intervals, the consequence of an engineering tradeoff to create a large, powerful engine in a small space. This design choice is entirely vestigial from an engineering standpoint, but has been sustained because of the strong connection between the distinctive sound and the Harley-Davidson brand. This design, which is covered under several United States patents, gives the Harley-Davidson V-twin its unique choppy "potato-potato" sound. To simplify the engine and reduce costs, the V-twin ignition was designed to operate with a single set of points and no distributor, which is known as a dual fire ignition system, causing both spark plugs to fire regardless of which cylinder was on its compression stroke, with the other spark plug firing on its cylinder's exhaust stroke, effectively "wasting a spark." The exhaust note is basically a throaty growling sound with some popping.The 45 degree design of the engine thus creates a plug firing sequencing as such: The first cylinder fires, the second (rear) cylinder fires 315° later, then there is a 405° gap until the first cylinder fires again, giving the engine its unique sound.Harley Davidson has used various ignition systems throughout its history--be it the early points/condenser system, (Big Twin up to 1978 and Sportsters 1970 to 1978), magneto ignition system used on 1958 to 1969 Sportsters, early electronic with centrifugal mechanical advance weights, (all models 1978 and a half to 1979), or the late electronic with transistorized ignition control module, more familiarly known as the black box or the brain, (all models 1980 to present).With the implementation of Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), Harley Davidson uses a single fire ignition system on the models equipped with EFI, which now includes 100% of their product line with the introduction of the 2007 models.In 1991, Harley-Davidson began to participate in the Sound Quality Working Group, founded by Orfield Labs, Bruel and Kjaer, TEAC, Yamaha, Sennheiser, SMS and Cortex. This was the nation's first group to share research on psychological acoustics. Later this year, Harley-Davidison participated in a series of sound quality studies at Orfield Labs, based on recordings taken at the Talladega Superspeedway, with the objective to lower the sound level for EU standards while analytically capturing the "Harley Sound."[citation needed] This research resulted in the bikes that were introduced in compliance with EU standards for 1998.On 1 February 1994, the company filed a trademark application for the distinctive sound of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle engine: "The mark consists of the exhaust sound of applicant's motorcycles, produced by V-twin, common crankpin motorcycle engines when the goods are in use". Nine of Harley-Davidson's competitors filed comments opposing the application, arguing that cruiser-style motorcycles of various brands use a single-crankpin V-twin engine which produce a similar sound. These objections were followed by litigation. After six years, Harley-Davidson withdrew their trademark application.Interestingly, when Honda first began making a motorcycle with a 45° V-2 design, the Honda Shadow, it used a more advanced engineering approach with an offset crank design which allows for even firing pulses and higher horsepower because of the reduced vibrational stresses on the engine. However, because potential buyers complained that the Shadow did not 'sound like a Harley,' Honda in 1995 introduced the Shadow American Classic Edition (or ACE) which had a single crank-pin design, reduced horsepower and a much more Harley-like sound.

sejarah vespa

History of Piaggio and Vespa Motor scooters

(Based on How to Restore and Maintain Your Vespa Motor scooter Book, by Bob Darnell & Bob Golfen)

The Vespa motor scooter is emblematic of all that is romantic and carefree about the Continental lifestyle, a virtual symbol of Italy, and a stylistic icon readily connected with youth and adventure. For many parts of the world, Vespa scooter are also a workhorse of basic transportation, a ubiquitous urban presence in European and Asian nation – the buzzing of motor scooter is still heard throughout ancient alleys and wide boulevard. With more than 15 million sold in a half-century of production, Vespa models are far and away the best-selling motor scooter of all time.
For Italians, the Vespa scooter has a broader meaning, symbolic of their country’s reemergence as a major industrial power from the shambles of World War II. It shows how a complex economic problem can be reduced to the elegant simplicity of a motor scooter. And Vespa designs serve to demonstrate the Italian sense of style and innovation.
From its roots of providing basic transportation and the bare beginnings of economic survival for the people of Italy devastated by World War II, to its role as treed-setting fashion accessory during the turbulent 1960s, the Vespa motor scooter has retained its general design and overall mission. The style and culture fit in well with today’s youth, who appreciate the retro charm and post-industrial. Old scooters fauns parked in garages and basements are being resurrected, restored, and ridden by a new generation.
Piaggio, the company that developed and produces the Vespa scooter, goes back more that a century, founded in Genoa by Rinaldo Piaggio in 1884 as Societa Anonima Piaggio. Originally dedicated to producing woodworking machinery, the company was soon engaged in building railroad cars for the booming rail industry. Latter, the company built commercial vehicles, automobiles, and boats. During World War I, Piaggio began to take part in the fledgling aviation industry by making airplane parts in 1914, and the following year, entire airplane. Piaggio’s innovative bent soon emerged as he developed such advances as as pressurized cabins and retractable landing gear. An aviation engine designed by Piaggio set 20 word records during the 1920s.In 1938, Rinaldo Piaggio died, leaving the company’s two factories in Tuscany to Enrico Piaggio, 33, and his younger brother, Armando, 31. The timing for two young industrialist to take over their father’s business couldn’t have been worse, as fascist dictator Benito Mussolini had cemented his power in Italy and was poised to enter a pact for world conquest with Germany’s Nazi leader, Adolph Hitler.
During the war, the factories cranked out aircraft for the Axis war effort, developing several fighters and Italy’s only heavy bomber. Naturally, the factories became prime targets for Allied bombing raids. They were hit again and again, and at war’s end, the factory lay in ruins, and more than 10,000 Piaggio employees were out of work. But then, much of Italy was a shambles, all its industries bombed and destroyed, its people poverty stricken and demoralized. Under terms of the Allied peace agreement, Piaggio was banned from producing aircraft, which left Enrico Piaggio, who by then had taken over the business, casting about for a new product once he had rebuilt a factory in which to produce it